Lesure comments that they range from the frolics of minstrels at Eastbourne in 1905 and the American acrobat "General Lavine" "to dead leaves and the sounds and scents of the evening air". 1)CLAUDE DEBUSSY(1862-1918) BORN:August 22 1862 in France Died :March 25 1918 in Paris CAUSE OF DEATH:Cancer-He changed the course of musical development by evolving traditional rules and conventions into a new language of possiblities in harmony,rhythm,form,texture,and color. [6] In 1888 and 1889 he went to the annual festivals of Wagner's operas at Bayreuth. ”Chabrier, Moussorgsky, Palestrina, voilà ce que j'aime" – they are what I love. Nature in all its vastness is truthfully reflected in my sincere though feeble soul. "[87] During the next few years Debussy developed his personal style, without, at this stage, breaking sharply away from French musical traditions. [55] The complete set was given the following year. [124] During the conversation, Debussy told Guiraud, "There is no theory. Cause of death: unspecified. Debussy … Claude Debussy - Claude Debussy - Evolution of his work: Debussy’s music marks the first of a series of attacks on the traditional language of the 19th century. [21] He advanced to premier accessit in 1875 and second prize in 1877, but failed at the competitions in 1878 and 1879. Military service: French Army. [15] The course included music history and theory studies with Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray, but it is not certain that Debussy, who was apt to skip classes, actually attended these. In his final years, he focused on chamber music, completing three of six planned sonatas for different combinations of instruments. Debussy was able to grow as an artist throughout his lifetime and continue this recognition long past his death. Achille-Claude Debussy (22nd August 1862 – 25th March 1918) was a French composer. "[2] Debussy was influenced by the Symbolist poets. His piano works include two books of Préludes and one of Études. [100] The composer Olivier Messiaen was fascinated by its "extraordinary harmonic qualities and ... transparent instrumental texture". He was one of the most important figures in music at the turn of the 20th century; his music represents the transition from late-romantic to 20th century classical.Debussy's most dramatic contribution to music history was his disregard for traditional chord structures and tonality. [92] His early mélodies, inspired by Marie Vasnier, are more virtuosic in character than his later works in the genre, with extensive wordless vocalise; from the Ariettes oubliées (1885–1887) onwards he developed a more restrained style. [65] After despatching Lilly to her parental home at Bichain in Villeneuve-la-Guyard on 15 July 1904, Debussy took Emma away, staying incognito in Jersey and then at Pourville in Normandy. He was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [152] Stravinsky was more ambivalent about Debussy's music (he thought Pelléas "a terrible bore ... in spite of many wonderful pages")[153] but the two composers knew each other and Stravinsky's Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920) was written as a memorial for Debussy. [64] The vocal score was published in early May, and the full orchestral score in 1904. [82], Although Debussy was in no doubt of Wagner's stature, he was only briefly influenced by him in his compositions, after La damoiselle élue and the Cinq poèmes de Baudelaire (both begun in 1887). Joseph Maurice Ravel (French: [ʒɔzɛf mɔʁis ʁavɛl]; 7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor. [2][148][149][150] Roger Nichols writes that "if one omits Schoenberg [...] a list of 20th-century composers influenced by Debussy is practically a list of 20th-century composers tout court. [51], In 1900 Debussy began attending meetings of Les Apaches ("The Hooligans") an informal group of innovative young artists, poets, critics, and musicians who had adopted their collective title to represent their status as "artistic outcasts". He wrote his own poems for the Proses lyriques (1892–1893) but, in the view of the musical scholar Robert Orledge, "his literary talents were not on a par with his musical imagination". … Biographers of Debussy, including Edward Lockspeiser, Stephen Walsh and Eric Frederick Jensen, comment that although Antoinette Mauté de Fleurville was a woman of some affectations, with the assumed manner of a grande dame, she was a fine teacher. Rectal Cancer. [25], In addition to the composers who influenced his own compositions, Debussy held strong views about several others. His music was to a considerable extent a reaction against Wagner and the German musical tradition. Claude Debussy, in full Achille-Claude Debussy, (born August 22, 1862, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France—died March 25, 1918, Paris), French composer whose works were a seminal force in the music of the 20th century. For three months, Debussy attended rehearsals practically every day. [105] The latter failed as a ballet because of what Jann Pasler describes as a banal scenario, and the score was neglected for some years. [104] The former follows the tripartite form established in the Nocturnes and La mer, but differs in employing traditional British and French folk tunes, and in making the central movement, "Ibéria", far longer than the outer ones, and subdividing it into three parts, all inspired by scenes from Spanish life. [117] Simon Trezise, in his 1994 book Debussy: La Mer, finds the intrinsic evidence "remarkable," with the caveat that no written or reported evidence suggests that Debussy deliberately sought such proportions. [41] He travelled to Maeterlinck's home in Ghent in November to secure his consent to an operatic adaptation. Genealogy for Claude-Emma (Chouchou) Debussy Bardac (1905 - 1919) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living … [7][n 2] He was the eldest of the five children of Manuel-Achille Debussy and his wife, Victorine, née Manoury. During the … [2] Lesure also considers that Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov directly influenced Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande. Her liaison with Gabriel Fauré had inspired the song-cycle La bonne chanson in the early 1890s. [93] The central "Jeux de vagues" section has the function of a symphonic development section leading into the final "Dialogue du vent et de la mer", "a powerful essay in orchestral colour and sonority" (Orledge) which reworks themes from the first movement. Cause of Death. [103], Of the later orchestral works, Images (1905–1912) is better known than Jeux (1913). [46] While still living with Dupont, he had an affair with the singer Thérèse Roger, and in 1894 he announced their engagement. Achille-Claude Debussy, commonly known as Claude Debussy, is one of the world’s most famous Classical composers. [76] Mary Garden said, "I honestly don't know if Debussy ever loved anybody really. 20–21; Walsh (2003), Chapter 1; and Jensen, pp. She soon became Debussy's mistress as well as his muse. Contact. Vallas, p. 225. "[33], Debussy finally composed four pieces that were submitted to the Academy: the symphonic ode Zuleima (based on a text by Heinrich Heine); the orchestral piece Printemps; the cantata La Damoiselle élue (1887–1888), the first piece in which the stylistic features of his later music began to emerge; and the Fantaisie for piano and orchestra, which was heavily based on Franck's music and was eventually withdrawn by Debussy. [45] In the same year Debussy began a relationship with Gabrielle (Gaby) Dupont, a tailor's daughter from Lisieux; in July 1893 they began living together. [78][79][80], Debussy and Emma Bardac eventually married in 1908, their troubled union enduring for the rest of his life. [161], The pianist Stephen Hough believes that Debussy's influence also extends to jazz and suggests that Reflets dans l'eau can be heard in the harmonies of Bill Evans. Physical Description. [2] Manuel Debussy remained in Paris and joined the forces of the Commune; after its defeat by French government troops in 1871 he was sentenced to four years' imprisonment, although he only served one year. [6], Initially Debussy found the artistic atmosphere of the Villa Medici stifling, the company boorish, the food bad, and the accommodation "abominable". The analyst Richard Langham Smith writes that Impressionism was originally a term coined to describe a style of late 19th-century French painting, typically scenes suffused with reflected light in which the emphasis is on the overall impression rather than outline or clarity of detail, as in works by Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and others. Ethnicity. Claude-Achille Debussy (22 August 1862–25 March 1918) was a French composer. [18] In July 1874 Debussy received the award of deuxième accessit[n 4] for his performance as soloist in the first movement of Chopin's Second Piano Concerto at the Conservatoire's annual competition. In 1909 Debussy found out that he had colorectal cancer. [86], In a survey of Debussy's oeuvre shortly after the composer's death, the critic Ernest Newman wrote, "It would be hardly too much to say that Debussy spent a third of his life in the discovery of himself, a third in the free and happy realisation of himself, and the final third in the partial, painful loss of himself". (Book 2, 1913). Just a year later, his daughter, Claude-Emma, passed away from diptheria and was buried beside her father. Frederick H. Martens). [11] Sivry's mother, Antoinette Mauté de Fleurville, gave piano lessons, and at his instigation the young Debussy became one of her pupils. Claude Debussy was born on 22 August 1862, in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. Male. Read Full Biography. I am too enamoured of my freedom, too fond of my own ideas! "[143] In 1915 he complained that "since Rameau we have had no purely French tradition [...] We tolerated overblown orchestras, tortuous forms [...] we were about to give the seal of approval to even more suspect naturalizations when the sound of gunfire put a sudden stop to it all." Another project inspired by Poe – an operatic version of The Devil in the Belfry did not progress beyond sketches. His mother was a seamstress. Birth Chart of Claude Debussy, Astrology Horoscope, Astro, Birthday, Leo Horoscope of Celebrity. He was born in Saint-Germain-En-Laye,France and was the eldest of five siblings.However on March 25,1918 Claude pasted away at the age of 55 in Paris from colon cancer, some question that Cluade might have commited suicide because he could no longer bare the pain.Behind he left one wife, a ex wife and one child. [156] Boulez also discovered Debussy's music at a young age and said that it gave him his first sense of what modernity in music could mean. We must at all costs preserve this magic which is peculiar to music and to which music, by its nature, is of all the arts the most receptive. They may also indicate the influence on Debussy of Satie's 1887 Trois Sarabandes. Some praised the work, but Pierre Lalo, critic of Le Temps, hitherto an admirer of Debussy, wrote, "I do not hear, I do not see, I do not smell the sea". [61] It made Debussy a well-known name in France and abroad; The Times commented that the opera had "provoked more discussion than any work of modern times, excepting, of course, those of Richard Strauss". [38] He commented in 1903 that Wagner was "a beautiful sunset that was mistaken for a dawn". Debussy's musical development was slow, and as a student he was adept enough to produce for his teachers at the Conservatoire works that would conform to their conservative precepts. In May 1893 Debussy attended a theatrical event that was of key importance to his later career – the premiere of Maurice Maeterlinck's play Pelléas et Mélisande, which he immediately determined to turn into an opera. [142], With the advent of the First World War, Debussy became ardently patriotic in his musical opinions. [160] Others have made orchestrations of some of the piano and vocal works, including John Adams's version of four of the Baudelaire songs (Le Livre de Baudelaire, 1994), Robin Holloway's of En blanc et noir (2002), and Colin Matthews's of both books of Préludes (2001–2006). Her parents eventually married in 1908, their troubled union enduring until Debussy’s death in 1918. He is sometimes seen as the first Impressionist composer, although he vigorously rejected the term. [36], A week after his return to Paris in 1887, Debussy heard the first act of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde at the Concerts Lamoureux, and judged it "decidedly the finest thing I know". [101] It influenced composers as different as Stravinsky and Puccini. Programs . Their daughter (the composer’s only child) Claude-Emma was born there on 30 October. Born to a family of modest means and little cultural involvement, Debussy showed enough musical talent to be admitted at the age of ten to France's leading music college, the Conservatoire de Paris. Debussy's birthplace is now a museum dedicated to him. Because of the bombings surrounding the city Debussy was required to be buried in a temporary graveyard until the fighting calmed. You have only to listen. Listen. Claude Debussy was born on August 22 , 1862. Claude-Emma, more affectionately known as ‘Chouchou’, was a great musical inspiration to the composer (she was the dedicatee of his Children’s Corner [72], The Bardacs divorced in May 1905. [27] She was the wife of Henri Vasnier, a prominent civil servant, and much younger than her husband. [6] In June 1885, Debussy wrote of his desire to follow his own way, saying, "I am sure the Institute would not approve, for, naturally it regards the path which it ordains as the only right one. "[122], Among French predecessors, Chabrier was an important influence on Debussy (as he was on Ravel and Poulenc);[126] Howat has written that Chabrier's piano music such as "Sous-bois" and "Mauresque" in the Pièces pittoresques explored new sound-worlds of which Debussy made effective use 30 years later. [109] Although Debussy said that anyone using the term (whether about painting or music) was an imbecile,[113] some Debussy scholars have taken a less absolutist line. P.P.M.P.C. [23] He travelled with her family for the summers of 1880 to 1882, staying at various places in France, Switzerland and Italy, as well as at her home in Moscow. His name was officially registered at the. Writing in 1958, the critic Rudolph Reti summarised six features of Debussy's music, which he asserted "established a new concept of tonality in European music": the frequent use of lengthy pedal points – "not merely bass pedals in the actual sense of the term, but sustained 'pedals' in any voice"; glittering passages and webs of figurations which distract from occasional absence of tonality; frequent use of parallel chords which are "in essence not harmonies at all, but rather 'chordal melodies', enriched unisons", described by some writers as non-functional harmonies; bitonality, or at least bitonal chords; use of the whole-tone and pentatonic scales; and unprepared modulations, "without any harmonic bridge". Although considering Images "the pinnacle of Debussy's achievement as a composer for orchestra", Trezise notes a contrary view that the accolade belongs to the ballet score Jeux. Cause of Death: Colon cancer Historical Events 1894-12-22 Claude Debussy's first orchestral masterpiece "Prélude à l'apres-midi d'un faune" premieres in Paris [15] Newman concurred: "There is a good deal of Wagner, especially of Tristan, in the idiom. [42][n 7], Marie Vasnier ended her liaison with Debussy soon after his final return from Rome, although they remained on good enough terms for him to dedicate to her one more song, "Mandoline", in 1890. Préludes are 24 solo piano pieces, composed by Claude Debussy. She was the subject of a 1995 French film, Chouchou: Music of Love. CAUSE OF DEATH: Cancer – Colon REMAINS : Buried, Cimetière de Passy, Paris, France BEST KNOWN AS : Embracing nontraditional scales and tonal structures, Claude Debussy is one of the most highly regarded composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is seen as the founder of musical impressionism. [2] Debussy believed that since Beethoven, the traditional symphonic form had become formulaic, repetitive and obsolete. That, and the three Images, premiered the following year, were the composer's last orchestral works. Thesis. So, in 1915, Debussy attempted to undergo surgery in order to cure it; after a painful procedure, Debussy found that he was feeling no better and he continued to live in pain. Debussy spent his remaining years writing as a critic, composing and performing his own works internationally. As well as Maeterlinck for Pelléas et Mélisande, he drew on Shakespeare and Dickens for two of his Préludes for piano – La Danse de Puck (Book 1, 1910) and Hommage à S. Pickwick Esq. [136] Debussy's interest in the popular music of his time is evidenced not only by the Golliwogg's Cakewalk and other piano pieces featuring rag-time, such as The Little Nigar (Debussy's spelling) (1909), but by the slow waltz La plus que lente (The more than slow), based on the style of the gipsy violinist at a Paris hotel (to whom he gave the manuscript of the piece). [98] The work influenced Ravel, whose own String Quartet, written ten years later, has noticeably Debussian features. – although he also conceded, "I feel free because I have been through the mill, and I don't write in the fugal style because I know it. [46] The following year he completed the first draft of Pelléas and began efforts to get it staged. [44] Later in 1890 Debussy met Erik Satie, who proved a kindred spirit in his experimental approach to composition. He wrote incidental music for King Lear and planned an opera based on As You Like It, but abandoned that once he turned his attention to setting Maeterlinck's play. In February there was conflict between Maeterlinck on the one hand and Debussy, Messager and Carré on the other about the casting of Mélisande. 1: Le martyre de Saint-Sébastien", "Strength in numbers: How Fibonacci taught us how to swing", "The Art of French Piano Music: Debussy, Ravel, Fauré, Chabrier", "Signification, Objectification, and the Mimetic Uncanny in Claude Debussy's 'Golliwog's Cakewalk'", "George Benjamin–Conductor, Composer and Knight", “Written on Skin is one of the operatic masterpieces of our time – review”, "Debussy orchestrations point towards 2018 centenary", " Debussy: The Complete Works review – a comprehensive and invaluable survey", Website of Debussy museum, St. Germain-en-Laye, International Music Score Library Project, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Claude_Debussy&oldid=996639768, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 20:39. [41], Debussy continued to compose songs, piano pieces and other works, some of which were publicly performed, but his music made only a modest impact, although his fellow composers recognised his potential by electing him to the committee of the Société Nationale de Musique in 1893. With the latter in mind the composer wrote to the violinist Eugène Ysaÿe in 1894 describing the orchestral Nocturnes as "an experiment in the different combinations that can be obtained from one colour – what a study in grey would be in painting. Skater Nation Discipline Program Choreo. CLAUDE DEBUSSY By G. JEAN-AUBRY F RENCH music has suffered an irreparable loss. Some critics thought the treatment less subtle and less mysterious than his previous works, and even a step backward; others praised its "power and charm", its "extraordinary verve and brilliant fantasy", and its strong colours and definite lines. His fatal illness prevented him from completing the set, but those for cello and piano (1915), flute, viola and harp (1915), and violin and piano (1917 – his last completed work) are all concise, three-movement pieces, more diatonic in nature than some of his other late works. [162], In 1904, Debussy played the piano accompaniment for Mary Garden in recordings for the Compagnie française du Gramophone of four of his songs: three mélodies from the Verlaine cycle Ariettes oubliées – "Il pleure dans mon coeur", "L'ombre des arbres" and "Green" – and "Mes longs cheveux", from Act III of Pelléas et Mélisande. [2] The piano piece Golliwogg's Cakewalk, from the 1908 suite Children's Corner, contains a parody of music from the introduction to Tristan, in which, in the opinion of the musicologist Lawrence Kramer, Debussy escapes the shadow of the older composer and "smilingly relativizes Wagner into insignificance". As World War I continued to wage on, the Debussy family found themselves surrounded by fighting. Claude Debussy Biography by Allen Schrott + Follow Artist. [97] Most of the major works for which Debussy is best known were written between the mid-1890s and the mid-1900s. In 1910 Gustav Mahler conducted the Nocturnes and Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune in New York in successive months. He took many years to develop his mature style, and was nearly 40 when he achieved international fame in 1902 with the only opera he completed, Pelléas et Mélisande. (trans. [123] A further improvisation by Debussy during this conversation included a sequence of whole tone harmonies which may have been inspired by the music of Glinka or Rimsky-Korsakov which was becoming known in Paris at this time. "), and audiences ("their almost drugged expression of boredom, indifference and even stupidity"). [165], In more recent times Debussy's output has been extensively recorded. A fictionalised and melodramatic dramatisation of the affair. [52] The membership was fluid, but at various times included Maurice Ravel, Ricardo Viñes, Igor Stravinsky and Manuel de Falla. No specific cause of death was given, but Kocsis underwent major heart surgery in 2012. [41] His String Quartet was premiered by the Ysaÿe string quartet at the Société Nationale in the same year. Gender. She outlived her father by scarcely a year, succumbing to the diphtheria epidemic of 1919. With early influences including Russian and Far Eastern music, Debussy developed his own style of harmony and orchestral colouring, derided – and unsuccessfully resisted – by much of the musical establishment of the day. Debussy did not give his works opus numbers, apart from his String Quartet, Op. These writers, who included Verlaine, Mallarmé, Maeterlinck and Rimbaud, reacted against the realism, naturalism, objectivity and formal conservatism that prevailed in the 1870s. Rectal Cancer. (Achille) Claude Debussy[n 1] (French: [aʃil klod dəbysi]; 22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer. French. He was for the most part enthusiastic about Richard Strauss[137] and Stravinsky, respectful of Mozart and was in awe of Bach, whom he called the "good God of music" ("le Bon Dieu de la musique"). Halford cites the popular "Clair de Lune" (1890) from the Suite Bergamasque as a transitional work pointing towards the composer's mature style. He first joined the piano class of Antoine François Marmontel,[14] and studied solfège with Albert Lavignac and, later, composition with Ernest Guiraud, harmony with Émile Durand, and organ with César Franck. [82] Jeux was unfortunate in its timing: two weeks after the premiere, in March 1913, Diaghilev presented the first performance of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, a sensational event that monopolised discussion in musical circles, and effectively sidelined Jeux along with Fauré's Pénélope, which had opened a week before. ... as well as a distinguished performer of works by Claude Debussy and Sergei Rachmaninoff. "[110], Debussy strongly objected to the use of the word "Impressionism" for his (or anybody else's) music,[n 14] but it has continually been attached to him since the assessors at the Conservatoire first applied it, opprobriously, to his early work Printemps. Diptheria at 13 diagnosed with colorectal cancer of préludes and one of the most influential composers the... Further the winner 's studies and the German guns bombarded the city the influence of Jules,... In 1910 Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schoenberg, both born Jewish Vasnier, musician. 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